TOZ

TOZ (abbr. from the initials of Towarzystwo Ochrony Zdrowia Ludnośći Źydowskiej, "Society for the Safeguarding of the Health of the Jewish Population"), Jewish welfare organization officially founded in Poland in 1921. It was connected with the OZE society, established in St. Petersburg in 1912, which engaged in medical activities in the former territories of Russia and was later integrated into a common framework in Poland. TOZ began activities in a few regions only, but from 1923 it encompassed all areas in the state. World War I and its consequences, especially in the eastern regions, where the Jews had also suffered from pogroms, brought the society up against a number of urgent problems. It had to combat the contagious diseases which developed into epidemics and were responsible for a high death rate among the Jewish population in general and children in particular. On the other hand, the hostilities along the borders until the Peace of Riga (1921) brought chaos to the state and municipal medical services and prevented the impoverished Jewish masses from benefiting from the sick funds for organized workers. Although TOZ considered its principal role in the sphere of preventive medicine, current needs compelled it to concentrate its main efforts in preventing the spread of skin and eye diseases (ringworm and trachoma) and tuberculosis by establishing clinics, X-ray departments, pharmacies, convalescent homes, etc. TOZ published three periodicals: Folksgezund (for the masses), Gezund (for schoolchildren), and Sotsiale Meditisin (a scientific journal). Among its many services the psycho-hygienic assistance which TOZ offered in treating the mentally retarded or those with physical afflictions was of great importance. In addition to its institutions, TOZ also supported numbers of Jewish hospitals with its advisory services and assistance funds. In 1939 it was responsible for over 400 medical and sanitary institutions in 50 towns. Annual membership fees were paid by 15,000 supporters, and about 1,000 people, including doctors, nurses, dentists, teachers, and medical assistants, were on its employment roll. Additional incomes were derived from support by the american jewish joint distribution committee and the funds raised by the OZE abroad. Throughout the existence of TOZ, its central committee was presided over by the physician and public worker Gershon lewin , formerly director of the Jewish hospital in Warsaw. Leon Wulman also played an outstanding role in the activities of the organization in his capacity of general secretary. During World War II the institutions of TOZ attempted to assist victims of famine and epidemics until 1942, when all its branches were closed down on the order of the German occupation authorities in Poland. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Y. Gruenbaum (ed.), EG, 1 (1953), 582–5: A. Lewinson, Toledot Yehudei Varshah (1953), 353–5; H.M. Rabinowicz, The Legacy of Polish Jewry (1965), 175–6. (Moshe Landau)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • TOZ — may refer to one of the following*Tula Arms Plant ( ru. Тульский оружейный завод, ТОЗ). *TOZ rifle *Association for Joint Cultivation of Land, in the Soviet Union ( ru. Товарищество по совместной обработке земли, ТОЗ; Latinized Russian… …   Wikipedia

  • toz — tȍz m <N mn tòzovi> DEFINICIJA reg. prah, površina SINTAGMA toz od kave talog od kave; zoc (soc), fundać ETIMOLOGIJA tur …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • toz — I, 296; III, 123, 186bkz: tör yaylara sarıtan sırım. II I, 123 …   Divan-i Luqat-i it-Türk Dizini

  • toz — is. 1) Çok küçük ve hafif parçacıklara bölünmüş toprak Bu talihsiz taşra kentinde, yolun iki yanındaki yeşilleri tozdan yitmiş ağaçlara bakmak insanı daha bir yalnız kalmışlık duygusu içinde bırakıyor. R. N. Güntekin 2) Çok küçük parçacıklara… …   Çağatay Osmanlı Sözlük

  • toz — is. 1. Hava axını ilə yerdən qalxıb şeylərin üzərinə qonan xırda hissəciklər. Kömür tozu. Ayaqqabının tozunu silmək. – . . Marallarım. . moizə kitablarını rəfdən alıb, tozlarını təmizləyib başlayırlar əzbərləməyə. Ə. H.. . . Maşın dümağ tozun… …   Azərbaycan dilinin izahlı lüğəti

  • TOZ-78 — Infobox Weapon name=TOZ 78 | caption= origin=flagcountry|Russia type=Bolt action rifle is ranged=yes service= manufacturer=Tula production date=19?? weight=kg to lb| 2.7|abbr=on|precision=1|wiki=yes length=mm to in|… …   Wikipedia

  • toż — I → tenże II ndm 1. «partykuła wzmacniająca partykułę to, wyrażająca najczęściej zdumienie, zaskoczenie, podkreślająca coś, jakieś stwierdzenie, przekonanie o czymś; ale(ż)» Toż to Zosia! Toż to naiwność tak sądzić! Toż to jest przepisane z… …   Słownik języka polskiego

  • TOZ-17 — The TOZ 17 01 is a popular bolt action .22 rifle made by the TOZ firearms company, Tula, Russia, intended for professional and amateur hunting.It is known for being accurate and is common in the USA, Australia and New Zealand.The rifle usually… …   Wikipedia

  • TOZ — Toulski Oroujeïny Zavod Toulski Oroujeïny Zavod Pierre le Grand fit bâtir une fabrique d armes en 1712 à Toula. Aujourd hui la Toulski Oroujeïny Zavod (russe : Тульский оружейный завод) fabrique des armes réputées pour des utilisations… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Toz — Issu de la promulgation du code agraire de 1922 qui fixe le statut des terres en URSS, le toz est un groupement de paysans au sein duquel chacun possède sa propre exploitation et peut travailler en commun avec les autres membres dans le cadre de… …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.